Ni gute ingagi ikinana n’abantu filime?

Mu mwaka w’1933, filime yitwa King Kong iba irimo ingagi nini cyane yasohotse bwa mbere. Muri icyo gihe yari imwe muri filime za mbere zagaragayemo umukinnyi wa filime utari umuntu kandi ukinana n’abantu abifashijwemo na mudasobwa (animated character). Muri iyi minsi ibi ntibikiri igitangaza, kuko filime nyinshi zisohoka ziba zirimo ibisa n’ibitangaza. Ariko se ujya wibaza uko bikorwa? Ni gute abantu bakora filime irimo ingagi, noneho bakayishyiramo n’abantu, kandi igakinwa mu buryo buyigaragaza nk’aho ari ibintu bya nyabyo byabayeho?

Ibi bikorwa kenshi, ariko ibitangaje cyane si ugushyiramo inyamaswa zidahari. Wabonye abantu baguruka, abantu baba munsi y’amazi, abantu bafite imigozi iva mu biganza bya bo, n’ibindi. Muri iyi nyandiko tugiye gusobanukirwa neza uko biriya bikorwa, icyo bigamije, ndetse n’icyo bisaba ngo bise kuriya.

Ubundi biriya ni ibiki?

Iki ni ikibazo buri muntu wese yakwibaza. Mu cyongereza biriya byitwa special effects. Dukunze kubyita montaje. Abahanga mu gufata amashusho bakoresha uburyo buhambaye ngo babashe gufata amashusho mu buryo busanzwe, ariko bakayagaragaza mu buryo budasanzwe. Ushobora gutekereza ko ubuhanga buhambaye buba mu gukoresha mudasobwa, ugashyira umuriro mu biganza by’umuntu. Ariko mu by’ukuri, ako ni agace koroshye cyane. Twavuze kuri deepfakes, ibi birenze deepfakes kuko kugira ngo video izasohoke uko uyishaka, uhera mu gihe uri gufata amashusho.

Amashusho afatwa ate? (Production)

Bikorwa mu buryo bwinshi. Reka dukoreshe ingero.

Duhereye ku rugero rw’ingagi twavuzeho, birashoboka ko iriya ngagi, aba ari umuntu basize amabara ameze nk’ay’ingagi. Cyangwa se akaba ari umuntu wambaye uruhu rw’ingagi (mujya mubibona). Uretse n’ibyo, birashoboka kandi ko iriya ngagi yaba idahari. Bakayishushanya bakoresheje mudasobwa, bakayongera mu mashusho abantu bakinnye. Ubu buryo burakoreshwa cyane, nk’iyo ubona imbwa zikinana n’abantu muri filime, ukabona udukoko dukinana n’abantu, hifashishwa ubu buryo. Iyo mudasobwa ikoreshwa, igikorwa ni ukongera ingano y’umuntu cyangwa igikoresho ngo kingane uko byifuzwa.

Ujya ubona imijyi isenyuka muri filime, ukabona abantu batuye munsi y’amazi, abantu baguruka, bafite umuvuduko udasanzwe, cyangwa bakora ibidasanzwe. Ukuri ni uko biriya byose akenshi bitaba. Ahubwo bifashisha ibikuta cyangwa abantu bafite amabara y’icyatsi cyangwa y’ubururu, nyuma hagakorwa ibyitwa Chroma Key compositing (Uburyo bwo gukoresha amabara, ugakura mu ifoto icyo udashaka cyangwa ugashyiramo icyo ushaka ko kijyamo – bikorwa nyuma yo gufata amashusho).

Ifi foto iragaragaza umuntu wambaye ibara ry’icyatsi, afite igitwe k’imbwa. Uyu muntu baramukataho bashyireho imbwa, bayigaragaza nk’igiye kurya uyu muntu.

Ni uburyo bwinshi bukoreshwa, bitewe n’ibikenewe abayobozi b’imikorere ya filime bagerageza gukoresha ibishoboka byose, ku buryo hari n’abubaka ibyo tubona muri filime byose bakazabisenya barangije gukina, cyangwa bakifashisha abantu b’abahanga mu kuvanga imiti ihindura amasura (makeup artists). Nka zimwe muri filime mubonamo abantu bakina bafite amasura ateye ubwoba, biriya bambara imyambaro ituma bamera kuriya (masks).

Ikindi kintu tutakwibagirwa gikomeye cyane mu gufata amashusho, ni urumuri (lighting). Urumuri mu gufata amashusho rukora itandukaniro rinini. Ushobora kugaragaza umuntu nk’uwa kera cyangwa uw’iyi minsi ukoresheje urumuri, ushobora gutuma umuntu asa neza cyangwa nabi ukoresheje urumuri, n’ibindi byinshi ushobora gukora wifashishije urumuri. Bitewe n’ahantu urumuri ruturuka, bituma umuntu ufata video, amenya aho ashyira kamera ye cyangwa uko ayifata. Gushyira urumuri mu mwanya wa nyawo ngo ufate amashusho meza, kandi nanone biri mu bintu bitinda kandi bisaba ubushishozi bwo ku rwego rwo hejuru.

Ndifuza kurangiza hano mbabwira ko n’ubwo ibikoresho bikoreshwa mu gufata amashusho bihenze cyangwa se bikaba bitagerwaho na buri wese, birashoboka ko nawe wakora amashusho akomeye wifashishije ibyo ufite. Urugero nk’urumuri, wakoresha izuba, ugafatira amashusho hanze. N’ibindi wifasha bitewe nanone n’ubumenyi ufite.

Bigenda gute iyo umaze gufata amashusho? (Post-production)

Nk’uko twabibonye, gufata amashusho ni bimwe mu bitwara igihe, imbaraga ndetse n’ubwenge bwinshi. Ariko iyo amashusho wamaze kuyafata haza ikindi gikorwa gikomeye cyo gutuma ibyo wakoze biba uko wifuza ko abantu bazabibona. Ni ho haza akazi ka mudasobwa n’abahanga kuri mudasobwa (Special Effects Artists) babikora kwa kundi tubireba bimeze.

Iyo gufata amashusho birangiye, hakurikiraho igikorwa cyo kwegeranya amashusho yafashwe, hagashyirwamo umuziki wongerera amashusho n’amajwi imbaraga n’ibindi.

Zimwe muri software zifashishwa ni izitwa Adobe After Effects, Blender, Cinema 4D, Adobe Premiere Pro, 3Ds Max Design n’izindi. Zikoreshwa mu gushushanya ya mashusho tubona, nka dragon, ingagi, dinazoro, no gukora abantu badasanzwe.

Amwe mu mafoto agaragaza uko bikorwa.

Nk’uko ubibonye muri aya mafoto, iyo umuntu akoresheje Special Effects, bimufasha kuba yakora ibintu ubusanzwe bitakorwa kuri kamera. Ushobora guha umunte ubushobozi, ugatuma abantu bizera ibidashoboka, cyangwa ukagira amakuru ugaragaza.

Ikoranabuhanga rikoreshwa mu gukora special effects ryagiye ryongera ubushobozi uko igihe cyagiye gisimburana n’ikindi kandi nk’uko twabivuzeho dukora kuri Deepfakes, ntibirangiriye aha, rizakomeza gutera imbere, hakozwe ibihambaye, ndetse bitarabonwa n’amaso, Techinika natwe turi hano ngo ibyo nibiba tuzagusobanurire ibyo ari byo.

Ufite ikibazo twandikire kuri email yacu info@techinika.com ushobora kandi kwinjira mu itsinda ryacu kuri Whatsapp, kugira ngo umenye byinshi ku ikoranabuhanga ndetse n’ibyo dukora.

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