Ibintu byose by’ingenzi ukeneye kumenya kuri IP Address!

Ese ujya wibaza IP Address icyo ari cyo? Wibaza se aho yaturutse cyangwa n'icyo abantu bakurikiza bayitanga? Byose urabisanga hano.

Iyo umwana avutse, ababyeyi bamuha amazina, bakamuha amazina amutandukanya n’abandi bana bafite ndetse n’abandi bantu bose bazahura na bo. Ni igikorwa cy’ingenzi cyane kuko n’iyo ababyeyi batahaye umwana izina, usanga hari izina abantu bamwise. Kuri mudasobwa rero igiye gukoresha interineti, na yo iba igomba gutandukana n’izindi. Ihabwa IP ADDRESS.

Buri gihe igikoresho ukoresha ujya kuri interineti (telephone, mudasobwa, tablet n’ibindi) gihabwa imibare igitandukanya n’ibindi bikoresho biri kuri interineti. Iyo mibare ihabwa igikoresho cyawe niyo yitwa IP Address, kandi nta gikoresho na kimwe kiyihuza n’indi.

IP Address mu magambo arambuye ni Internet Protocol, ikaba ifasha cyane mu gikorwa cyo kugira ngo ubutumwa buve ku muntu umwe bugere ku wundi muntu. Kuko amwe mu makuru aba agize ubutumwa haba harimo IP address y’uwohereje ubutumwa, n’uwabwakiye. IP yatangiye gukoreshwa mu mwaka 1974, mu kiswe TCP/IP ubwo interneti yakorwaga bwa mbere.

IP ifite ibyiciro bibiri, aribyo IPv4, na IPv6.

IPv4

ipv4
Urugero rwa IPv4

IPv4 mu magambo arambuye ni Internet Protocol version 4, akaba aribwo bwoko bwa IP Address bukoreshwa cyane muri iyi minsi. Ibyiciro bitatu byabanje IPv1, IPv2, na IPv3 byakoreshejwe mu bushakashatsi hagati ya 1973 na 1978 kugira ngo haboneka IPv4.

IPv4 iba ari imibare igizwe n’uduce tune(4) dutandukanijwe n’akadomo. Urugero: 192.168.100.1

Buri gikoresho cyose gikoresha interineti kiba gifite iyi mibare, ariko ntabwo yose iba isa gutya kuko na yo yifitemo ibindi byiciro byinshi bitewe n’umubare utangira agace ka mbere, ndetse bitewe n’aho iyo mibare ikoreshwa.

Ibyiciro bya IP Address tugendeye ku mibare itangira.
Urutonde rwa IP address bigendeye kuri class
Urutonde rwa IP address bigendeye kuri class
  1. Guhera kuri 1.0.0.0 kugera kuri 127.0.0.0 byiswe, CLASS A. Ukoresheje iki kiciro, ushobora guha IP Addresses ibikoresho bigera kuri 16,777,214.
  2. Guhera kuri 128.0.0.0 kugera kuri 191.0.0.0 byiswe CLASS B. Ukoresheje iki kiciro, ushobora guha IP Addresses ibikoresho bigera kuri 65,534.
  3. Guhera kuri 192.0.0.0 kugera kuri 223.0.0.0 byiswe CLASS C. Ukoresheje iki kiciro, ushobora guha IP Addresses ibikoresho bigera kuri 254.
  4. Guhera kuri 224.0.0.0 kugera kuri 239.0.0.0 byiswe CLASS D.
  5. Guhera kuri 240.0.0.0 kugera kuri 254.0.0.0 byiswe CLASS E.

Ibi byiciro byose nabyo ntabwo ntabwo ariko byose bikoreshwa, ibikoreshwa kenshi na benshi ni A, B na C. Ibindi (D na E) akenshi bikoreshwa mu bushakashatsi n’amagerageza.

Icyitonderwa: Buri gace ka IP Address Version 4, ntikagomba kurenza umubare 255. Bivuze ko ushobora kugira 255.255.255.255 ariko 256.230.300.456 ntishoboka.

Ibyiciro bya IP Address bitewe n’aho ikoreshwa.
Kugira ngo utumaneho n'abantu bo hanze, ukenera public IP. Urugero hano hankoreshejwe 82.129.80.11
Kugira ngo utumaneho n’abantu bo hanze, ukenera public IP. Urugero hano hankoreshejwe 82.129.80.11

Hari IP Address zitwa PRIVATE IP ADDRESS, n’izindi zitwa PUBLIC IP ADDRESS.

Private IP Address ni IP Address zikoreshwa mu itumanaho ry’ibikoresho bihuriye ahantu hamwe. Urugero, nk’ikigo cya RDB cyangwa IREMBO, bafite ibikoresho byinshi aho bakorera. Ibyo bikoresho byabo, uko byagenda kose bifite ahantu bihuriye, kandi kugira ngo babashe gutumanaho, ni uko baba bafite IP Address ziri private.

Muri za CLASS zose twabonye zikoreshwa cyane, CLASS A, B na C hose hashobora kuvamo Private IP Address.

Muri CLASS A, zihera kuri 10.0.0.0 kugera kuri 10.255.255.255,
Muri CLASS B, zihera kuri 172.16.0.0 kugera kuri 172.31.255.255,
Muri CLASS C, zihera kuri 192.168.0.0 kugera kuri 192.168.255.255

Izindi zose zisigaye zibarizwa muri PUBLIC IP ADDRESS, uretse IP Address ziri hagati ya 127.0.0.0 na 127.255.255.255 zabitswe ngo zige zikoreshwa na mudasobwa mu gukora ibikorwa bitandukanye. Zitwa LOOPBACK ADDRESS.

Public IP Address zo ziratandukanye kuko izi ni zo zigufasha guhuza n’abandi bantu kuri interineti. Twari twatanze urugero rw’Irembo na RDB, ko bakenera Private IP Address ngo babashe gutumanaho. Ariko iyo bagiye gutumanaho n’abandi bantu batari mu biro bya bo, bibasaba ko PRIVATE IP za bo zihindurwamo PUBLIC IP. Noneho Public za bo akaba arizo zimenyekana hanze, private zikaguma zihishe. Ibi bikorwa mu buryo bw’umutekano.

IPv6

Ipv6
Urugero rwa IPv6

Iyi yo yitwa Internet Protocol Version 6, ikaba ari yo yitezweho kuzasimbura IPv4. Ubu irakoreshwa ariko bitari cyane nka IPv4. Impamvu byabaye ngombwa ko ikorwa, ni uko IPv4 ikomeje gukoreshwa, hari igihe yazageraho ikarangira hakabura address zo guha ibindi bikoresho bizaza kuri internet nyuma.

Ariko IPv6 ifite address zingana n’ubwikube bwa 2 inshuro 128. 2128 aribyo bingana na 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

Biragaragara ko IP Address zingana gutya, zidateze kuzashira na rimwe. Iyi IPv6 yo iba ari ndende kandi ikaba ikubiyemo Private na Public IP address. Bivuze ko udakenera kubitandukanya. Urugero: 2001:db8:1234::f350:2256:f3dd

IPv6 iba igizwe n’uduce 8, bitandukanye na IPv4 igizwe n’uduce 4. Uduce twayo tuba dutandukanijwe n’utudomo tubiri (:). Uru rugero twatanze rufite uduce dutandatu, ariko urebyemo hagati, urabonamo ahantu hari utudomo tubiri inshuro 2. Hariya bivuze ko harimo uduce tugizwe n’amazeru gusa. Urugero: 2001:db8:1234:0000:0000:f350:2256:f3dd

Ku bazi imibare, IPv6 ikoresha base 16, naho Ipv4 igakoresha base 10 na base 2.

Reka twizere ko buri muntu wese yagize igitekerezo kuri IP Address kandi ushobora no kuyisobanurira undi muntu. Ibi tuvuze ni duke kugira ngo umuntu wese agireho igitekerezo, ubutaha tuzakwereka uko ushobora kureba ip address mudasobwa yawe iri gukoresha cyangwa telephone yawe iri gukoresha. Iyi IP address kandi nanone ushobora kuyifashisha ugerageza kwinjirira indi mudasobwa cyangwa winjira muri telephone yawe. Ibyo byose tuzabivugaho, ntuzacikwe.

Niba ukeneye amakuru arenzeho, cyangwa ukeneye kwiga IP Address by’umwihariko tubwire muri comment, cyangwa utwandikire kuri email yacu info@techinika.com turi hano ku bwawe.

Ibihe byiza!

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