Inkomoko Ya Murandasi (Internet)

Murandasi (internet) ni kimwe mu bintu bifite uruhare runini mu iterambere rya tekinologi kwisi. Bimwe mu bibazo wakibaza ni inkomoko yayo, uko yavumbuwe, uwayivumbuye, n’ibindi bibazo byinshi umuntu yakwibaza. uyu munsi twakusanyirije hamwe bimwe mu bibazo mwibaza ku nkomoko ya murandasi(internet) n’ibisubizo byabyo.

Murandasi(Internet) ni urusobe runini rw’imiyoboro, n’ibikorwa remezo. Ihuza amamiriyoni ya mudasobwa hamwe kwisi yose, ikora umuyoboro ku buryo  mudasobwa iyo ari yo yose ishobora kuvugana n’izindi mudasobwa byose kandi byifashishije murandasi(internet). Murandasi(Internet) yatangiye nk’umuyoboro w’ishami ry’ingabo z’Amerika kugira ngo uhuze abahanga n’abarimu ba kaminuza ku isi.

Nkuko tubizi ikoranabuhanga ryaragutse kandi rihora rihinduka, ntibishoboka gushimira igihangano cya murandasi(internet) ku muntu umwe. Murandasi(Internet) yari umurimo w’ubumenyi bw’abapayiniya benshi, abategura porogaramu naba injeniyeri buri wese yateje imbere ibintu bishya n’ikoranabuhanga byaje guhuzwa no kuba “amakuru super highway” tuzi uyumunsi.

Kera cyane mbere yuko tekinoroji ibaho kugirango yubake murandasi(internet), abahanga benshi bari bamaze kumenya ko hariho imiyoboro y’amakuru ku isi. Nikola Tesla yagerageje igitekerezo cya “sisitemu idafite isi” mu ntangiriro ya za 1900, afatanya n’umuhanga Paul Otlet na Vannevar Bush batekereje uburyo bwo kubika imashini zikoreshwa mu bubiko bw’ibitabo n’itangazamakuru mu myaka ya za 1930 na 1940.

Nikola Tesla
Paul Otlet
Vannevar Bush

Mu ntangiriro ya za 1960, ubwo MIT ya J.C.R. Licklider yakwirakwije igitekerezo cya “Intergalactic Network” ya mudasobwa. Nyuma yaho gato, abahanga mu bya mudasobwa bateje imbere igitekerezo cyo “guhinduranya paki,” uburyo bwo kohereza neza amakuru ya elegitoroniki nyuma bikaza kuba imwe mu nyubako zikomeye za murandasi(internet).

J.C.R Licklider

Porotipi ya mbere ikora ya murandasi(internet) yaje mu mpera za 1960 hashyizweho ARPANET, cyangwa Urwego Rushinzwe Ubushakashatsi. Ubusanzwe yatewe inkunga na Minisiteri y’ingabo z’Amerika, ARPANET yakoresheje guhinduranya paki kugirango yemere mudasobwa nyinshi kuvugana ku murongo umwe. Ku ya 29 Ukwakira 1969, ARPAnet yatanze ubutumwa bwayo bwa mbere: itumanaho rya “node-to-node” riva kuri mudasobwa imwe ijya mu rindi. (Mudasobwa ya mbere yari muri laboratoire y’ubushakashatsi muri UCLA naho iya kabiri yari i Stanford; buri imwe yari ingana n’inzu nto). Ubutumwa – “LOGIN” – bwari bugufi kandi bworoshye, ariko bwasenyutse umuyoboro wa ARPA wari umaze igihe gito.: Mudasobwa ya Stanford yakiriye gusa inyuguti ebyiri za mbere.

Ikoranabuhanga ryakomeje kwiyongera mu myaka ya za 70 nyuma y’uko abahanga Robert Kahn na Vinton Cerf bakoze porotokore yo kugenzura imiyoboro ya murandasi(internet) na Porotokole ya interineti, cyangwa TCP / IP, uburyo bw’itumanaho bwashyizeho ibipimo byerekana uburyo amakuru ashobora koherezwa hagati y’imiyoboro myinshi.

Robert Kahn
Vinton Cerf

ARPANET yemeye TCP / IP ku ya 1 Mutarama 1983, maze kuva aho abashakashatsi batangira guteranya “urusobe rw’imiyoboro” rwahindutse murandasi(internet) igezweho. Isi yo kuri murandasi(internet) yahise ifata imiterere yamenyekanye cyane mu 1990, ubwo umuhanga mu bya mudasobwa Tim Berners-Lee yahimbaga Urubuga mpuzamahanga. Nubwo bikunze kwitiranywa na murandasi(internet) ubwayo, urubuga mu byukuri n’uburyo busanzwe bwo kubona amakuru ku murongo mu buryo bw’urubuga na hyperlinks.

Tim Berners-Lee

Urubuga rwafashaga kumenyekanisha murandasi(internet) mu baturage, kandi rwabaye intambwe yingenzi mu guteza imbere amakuru menshi benshi muritwe tubona buri munsi. Sinasoza ntabibukije ko murandasi(internet) ari kimwe mu bintu byavumbuwe n’umuntu. kandi ifite byinshi imaze kutujyezaho bitangaje cyane. N’igikoresho gikomeye rwose cyo kwiga ibintu byinshi bitandukanye  ndetse no mu buryo bw’itumanaho ikaba ingenzi cyane. Uramutse kandi ufite ikindi kibazo cyangwa icyifuzo wifuza kutugezaho, twandikire kuri email yacu info@techinika.com

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