Amakoranabuhanga 5 agiye guhindura isi!

Imyaka myinshi yashize, iyo ubwira umuntu ko hari igihe kizagera umuntu akajya yicara wenyine, akaganiriza telephone ye nta muntu w’undi bavugana, byari kugorana kumvikana n’uwo muntu. Yashoboraga no kugufata nk’uwasaze cyangwa urota ibitabaho. Ndetse ibi byaranabaye kuri bamwe na bamwe bagerageje kureba ahazaza. Ariko ubu turabizi ko bishoboka ko umuntu yajya mu isanzure akagaruka, umuntu ashobora kuzenguruka isi, mu gihe gito cyane, ndetse n’andi ma koranabuhanga atandukanye yiganjemo atagaragara ariko adufatiye runini mu buzima bwacu.

Uyu munsi, techinika twabateguriye urutonde rw’amakoranabuhanga agera kuri atanu(5) azahindura ahazaza, ndetse bikaba ari byiza ko buri wese ayagiraho ubumenyi:

INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT)

IoT ni rimwe mu makoranabuhanga yatangiye kwigaragaza mu gukemura ibibazo duhura na byo bya buri munsi. Duhereye nko ku bikoresho dukoresha nka smart TVs, imashini ziteka ariko ziciye n’akenge, uburinzi bw’ingo buciye akenge, n’ibindi bitandukanye.

IoT ikora ku bikoresho bitandukanye > Image: aceiot.ur.ac.rw

Iyo tuvuze IoT, tuba dushatse kuvuga uruhurirane rw’ibikoresho bisa n’ibiciye akenge, ndetse bikusanya amakuru, bikayasangiza ibindi bikoresho, ndetse bikaba byakoresha ayo makuru bifata imyanzuro runaka. Ahazaza ndetse n’ubu byaratangiye, ibyo bikoresho bizaba bidufasha gukora byinshi mu byo twikoreraga uyu munsi neza kandi bidakeneye ubufasha bwacu. Duhereye ku mashini zizajya zidufasha kudutwaza imitwaro, kugeza ku zizajya zidufasha gutwara ubutumwa, kuturinda, kutubarira, kutubikira amakuru, n’ibindi byinshi bitarabaho ariko bizahindura ahazaza.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)

Haba hari igihe wagiye gusoma ikinyamakuru, ugasanga ufite ibindi bintu uri gukora, kandi uramutse uri kubyumva bigusomerwa byakorohera? Iri koranabuhanga rya AI ryabigufashamo. Reka ibi tubireke, waba warigeze kubona zimwe muri mudasobwa zikoreshwa abantu baganira na zo?

Irobo Sophie riganira na ministri Ingabire Paula > Image: NewTimes.co.rw

Iri koranabuhanga rimenyerewe cyane mu biganiro. Iri koranabuhanga rikoresha amakuru abitswe, rikaba ryakuganiriza, rikagusubiza ibibazo, n’ibindi rishobora gukora bituma imashini zigaragara nk’inyaryenge. Nyamara iri na ryo rishingira ku makuru rihabwa n’abantu, rikayakoresha neza bitewe n’icyo risabwe. Ahazaza rero iri koranabuhanga rizagira akamaro kanini birenge gusa gukoreshwa mu biganiro. Urugero rushobora korohera buri wese ni irobo ryitwa Sophie riherutse kuza mu Rwanda. Ririya robo rikoresha iri koranabuhanga kugira ngo riganirize abantu. Ntuzatangazwe n’uko ushobora kuzajya ku ishuri ugasanga uri kwigishwa n’imashini, mukaganira, ukayibaza ibibazo, ikagusubiza ndetse ukabona na rimwe ibikora neza kurusha abantu.

3D PRINTING

Iri koranabuhanga ryo ni agatangaza. Ubu se wari uzi ko uryifashishije, ushobora gushushanya ikintu cyose ushaka, ugahita ugisohora ukoresheje imashini kabuhariwe? Yego birashoboka. Niba ushobora gukora igikoresho cya purasitike, iyo mashini wowe uyiha purasitike, na yo ikaguha icyo wayisabye, uko wayigisabye.

Iyi video irerekana uko iryo koranabuhanga rikoreshwa, ndetse n’uko rikora.

Iri koranabuhanga niryifashishwa, rizahindura burundu uko inganda zakoraga, bitume dukora ibintu mu buryo bwihuse, bitaduhenze, kandi bidufashe gusohora amashusho uko tuyifuza. Iri koranabuhanga ryitwa 3D printing kuko rikorana n’amafoto ya 3D, akaba ari amafoto agaragaza impande zigera muri eshatu aho kuba impande 2 gusa.

EXTENDED REALITY (XR)

Niba ujya ukina imikino ya video (jeux video), ushobora kuba warigeze kumva ko hari abantu bakina iyo mikino, bakambara ibirahure by’amaso (lunette) bibafasha kumera nk’aho iyo mikino bakina bayirimo bya nyabwo. Aba bifashisha ikoranabuhanga rya XR. Ibiri kuba mu birahure bya mudasobwa cyangwa televiziyo, bakabibona bimeze nk’aho nabo babirimo.

Hano ni muri Afurika y’epfo, batoza abana gukoresha ibirahure bya Virtual Reality > Image: virtual-reality.co.za

Iri koranabuhanga ribumbatiye andi makoranabuhanga agera kuri atatu ariyo Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) na Mixed reality. Bivugwa ko mu minsi iri imbere uzajya ureba video wifashishije iri koranabuhanga, imvura yagwa nawe ukiyumva nk’uwanyagiwe, barasa, ukababara, ku buryo bimera nk’aho nawe uhari. Iryo ni ikoranabuhanga rizagira akamaro cyane cyane mu buvuzi, abaganga bazoroherwa mu bihe byo kubaga abantu ndetse no gupima indwara mu mibiri y’abantu hifashishijwe iri koranabuhanga.

Muri iri koranabuhanga, ntabwo umuntu aba agikoresha ikoranabuhanga ahubwo amera nk’ubaye umwe na ryo. Nk’uko tujya tubibona mu ma filime.

BLOCKCHAIN

Blockchain ni ikoranabuhanga rikora cyane mu mutekano w’amakuru. Amakuru abitswe mu buryo bwa blockchain, biba bigoye cyangwa bidashoboka ko yakwibwa n’abahacka, cyangwa ngo yangizwe n’umuntu runaka ku bushake. Blockchain yatangiwe n’umuntu utazwi, ariko wiyita Satoshi Nakamoto, akaba ari nawe wazanye ifaranga ryo kuri interineti ryitwa Bitcoin.

Amakuru aba abitswe mu bikoresho bitandukanye bihuriye ku mirongo imwe > Image: blogs.iadb.org

Amakuru abitswe mu buryo bwa blockchain, aba abitswe mu bikoresho bitandukanye ariko bihuriye ku murongo umwe. Kandi amakuru aba asa kugira ngo hirindwe ko hazagira ugerageza kuyangiza cyangwa ngo abeshye mugenzi we. Blockchain ni ingingo yagutse tuzayifatira umwanya wayo tuyivugeho, ariko kuri ubu waba umenye ko ikora mu mutekano w’amakuru. Mushobora kuba mwarumvise ibyitwa NFT(Non Fungible Tokens), na byo bikoresha blockchain.

Hari andi makoranabuhanga menshi azagira akamaro, harimo nka Quantum computing (mudasobwa nto cyane, zifite umuvuduko udasanzwe, kandi zikora ibidasanzwe), 5G, Edge computing na cloud computing (kwegereza ububiko bw’amakuru aho amakuru aturuka) n’irindi koranabuhanga ritangaje. Ariko iryo twasobanuye hejuru, ni rimwe mu rizaba riyoboye.

Ahashize, twabaga tuzi ko buri wese afite umwuga we ndetse n’icyo akora, bityo ikoranabuhanga rikaba ryari irya bamwe abandi bitabareba. Ariko kugira ubumenyi ku ikoranabuhanga, byagaragajwe ko ari ubumenyi buri muntu wese akeneye muri iki kinyejana kuko isi tuganamo ibidusaba. Iyi akaba ari imwe mu mpamvu turi hano, ngo tugufashe kugira ubumenyi ku ikoranabuhanga ndetse unasobanukirwe n’iyo waba nta koranabuhanga wigeze wiga mu ishuri.

Ufite ikibazo twandikire kuri email yacu info@techinika.com ushobora kandi kwinjira mu itsinda ryacu kuri Telegram cyangwa Whatsapp, kugira ngo umenye byinshi ku ikoranabuhanga ndetse n’ibyo dukora.

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