Ibyo wifuza kumenya ku ba hackers byose

Jonathan James – Photo (Wikipedia)

Mu mwaka w’1999, uwitwa Jonathan James yari afite imyaka 16 ubwo yakatirwanga gufungirwa mu rugo. Ibyo byari nyuma y’uko akoze icyaha gikomeye cyo kwinjirira amabanga y’ikigo kigenzura ibyerekeranye n’isanzure NASA. Yabashije gusoma ubutumwa burenga 3000 kandi amenya amajambobanga y’abakozi bakoraga mu gace gashinzwe guhangana n’ibikorwa by’iterabwoba. Icyo cyari igikorwa kidasanzwe, akaba ari byo benshi bita gahakinga (hacking).

Hacking, ubundi mu magambo make, ni igikorwa cyo kwinjirira amabanga y’abandi atakugenewe, cyane cyane babivuga bashatse kuvuga amakuru abitse mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga kuri mudasobwa, telephone cyangwa kuri interineti.

Umuntu ukoze iki gikorwa ni we bita umuhaka (hacker). Uyu we akoresha ubushobozi bwe n’ubumenyi aba afite ku mikorere ya mudasobwa, akabasha kwinjira mu mabanga atamugenewe, agamije impamvu runaka. Zimwe mu mpamvu zizwi zituma abantu bahakinga, cyangwa biha ikaze mu makuru atabagenewe, ni ibi bikurikira:

  1. Amafaranga: hari abantu binjirira ikoranabuhanga ry’abandi, bagasaba amafaranga ngo barisubize. Ayo mafaranga mu ndimi z’amahanga yitwa Ransom. Bumwe mu buryo ibi bikorwamo ni uko umu hacker akoherereza virusi iza igafunga amakuru yawe, ukaba ushobora kongera kuyabona ari uko wishyuye amafaranga.
  2. Kumena amabanga: Hari abantu bahakinga bagamije kumena amabanga. Ibi cyane cyane bikorwa ku bigo bikomeye. Ibigo nka Sony Yahoo, eBay, Facebook n’ibindi bizi uko bimera. Kugira ngo iyi ngingo yumvikane neza, fata urugero rw’umugabo witwa Julian Assange akaba umwanditsi w’umunya Australia wamenaga amabanga y’ibihugu bikomeye abinyujije ku rubuga rwe WikiLeaks.
  3. Guhagarika ibikorwa: bamwe mu bahaka, bakora ibyo bakora bagamije kubona ibikorwa biri hasi gusa. Ku buryo ashobora gutuma sisiteme yawe yagiye hasi, akanagusigira ubutumwa bukwishongoraho. Bikarangira aguhombeje.
  4. Kugira icyo bagaragaza: Aba bahaka bo baratangaje kuko bo ntibaba bashaka kwiba amakuru gusa cyangwa amafaranga. Bano bo babikora bagira ngo babone umwanya wo kugira icyo batangaza.
  5. Kureba intege nke za sisitemu: Hari abahaka bo binjirira ibigo bitandukanye n’imbuga zitandukanye kugira ngo bamenye intege nke izo sisitemu zifite. Ibingibi kandi ibigo bimwe na bimwe nka Facebook birabyishyurira, bikanaha akazi aba bantu ngo bajye babafasha kumenya intege nke bafite.

Soma uko wakirinda guterwa n’abahaka [KANDA HANO]

Ibyo tuvuze byose ni impamvu aba hacker bashobora gu hacking ariko ushobora kuzasanga abandi bafite impamvu za bo. Gusa na none aba hacker bose, ibi ntabwo babihuriyeho kuko hari ibyiciro bitatu by’abahaka (hackers).

White hat hacker
Black hat hacker
  1. Black hat hackers (Abahaka b’ingofero y’umukara): Abangaba ni aba hacka twavuga ko ari abagome. Kuko ibyo bakora babikora nta mpuhwe. Ni bo babikorera amafaranga cyangwa se no kwishimira ko bahagaritse ibikorwa runaka. Ntibite ku ngaruka ziraza nyuma. Bashobora kuba bikorera, cyangwa bakaba bahabwa akazi n’abandi bantu.
  2. White hat hacker (Abahaka b’ingofero y’umweru): Aba bahaka, ni abana beza. Ni bo bahabwa akazi n’ibigo bitandukanye cyangwa abantu batandukanye kugira ngo bajye bagerageza kubahakinga, mu rwego rwo kumenya intege nke ziri muri sisiteme za bo. Urugero, nkaba ndi umuhaka, ukampa akazi ngo njye ngerageza guhakinga sisiteme zawe, turebe niba undi muhaka wo hanze yashobora kukwinjirira. Ibi nanone byitwa Ethical hacking.
  3. Grey hat hacker (Abahaka b’ingofero y’ikijuju): Aba bo, baba beza cyangwa babi bitewe n’uwabahaye akazi.

Ubu tumaze kubabwira ubwoko bw’aba hackers n’impamvu zitandukanye zituma bakora ibyo bakora. Buri wese yaba umu hacker, ariko bitwara igihe gihagije cyo kwiga no kugerageza. Gusa ndagira ngo nkubwire ko nta shuri na rimwe rizakwigisha gu hacking, ahubwo baguha iby’ingenzi aba hackers bashobora kuba bakenera.

Ibi ni bimwe mu byo usabwa ngo ubashe kuvuga ko uri umu hacker;

Ubumenyi bukenewe n’aba hackers – Photo(sdxcentral)
  1. Ugomba kuba ufite ubumenyi bw’ibanze kuri mudasobwa. Utabufite, ibindi byose uzaba ukora ntacyo bizakugezaho. Aha harimo gusobanukirwa icyo mudasobwa ari cyo ndetse n’ibyo ikora, kandi ukaba uzi kuyikoresha mu mirimo yoroheje y’ibanze, ndetse uzi no gushyiramo programu nshya.
  2. Ugomba kuba ufite ubumenyi buhagije ku buryo ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga bitumanaho. Cyangwa Networking mu ndimi z’amahanga. Aha harimo byinshi birimo IP Address n’ibindi.
  3. Kuba ufite ubumenyi kuri programu z’ibanze (Operating system): Izi ni programu z’ibanze zifasha kugira ngo mudasobwa igire akamaro. [Kanda hano usobanukirwe operating system]
  4. Ugomba kuba ufite ubumenyi buhagije kuri programming. Programming ni ubushobozi bwo kuba wakora programu nshya za mudasobwa cyangwa telephone [Kanda hano urebe video ivuga iby’ibanze kuri programming]
  5. Kuba ufite ubumenyi bw’ibanze mu guhisha amabanga. Guhisha amabanga nshatse kuvuga ni nka kwakundi wandika 65 ikaba isobanuye A. Hari uburyo bwinshi ibi bikorwamo, iyo umuntu abifitemo ubumenyi biramufasha cyane.
  6. Kuba ufite ubumenyi buhagije ku mutekano wa mudasobwa (Cybersecurity): Kugira ubumenyi buhagije ku mutekano wa mudasobwa, bigufasha kurinda umutekano neza no kumenya kureba niba sisitemu zirinze cyangwa zifite ibibazo.

Ubu ni bumwe mu bumenyi bw’ingenzi ukeneye, ariko nanone ibi ntibihagije. Ukeneye gukora cyane ukiga, kandi ugasubiramo ugerageza n’uburyo butandukanye bwo gukora ibintu. Bidatinze, uzatangira kubona itandukaniro mu bushobozi n’ubumenyi bwawe. Kandi uzatangira gukora ibintu bizagutungura nawe ubwawe.

Aba hackers bafite byinshi byiza n’ibindi bibi bakora ariko wowe ukwiye guhora urinda amakuru yawe. Nubwo igitero cyaba kitagabwe kuri wowe, ushobora kuba ikiraro kigera kuri mugenzi wawe. [Menya uko wakora umubare w’ibanga ukomeye]

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