Ibyo wifuza kumenya kuri Domain name byose!

Twavuze ku gikorwa cyo gukora website, ariko hari igihe kigera ugashaka ko website yawe ijya kuri murandasi, abantu bose bakaba bayisura aho baba bari hose. Icyo gihe ukora igikorwa kitwa Hosting (Tuzabivugaho kuri YouTube channel yacu). Iyo ugiye gushyira urubuga kuri murandasi, ubanza kugura izina rizaranga urwo rubuga, ari ryo bita domain name akaba ari na ryo tugiye kuvugaho. Noneho nyuma ugakodesha mudasobwa iri kuri murandasi, yitwa web server.

Ibindi wasoma:

Ni iki ukeneye ngo ukore website.
Isomo ryakwigisha gukora website ukoresheje HTML na CSS
Gukora website utanditse kode ukoresheje WordPress

Iyo uyikodesheje, iyo mudasobwa iba ifite IP Address (Soma hano kuri IP Address), twavuze ko buri gikoresho kiba kiri kuri murandasi kiba gifite IP Address. Uramutse uhaye abantu IP Address y’iyo mudasobwa wakodesheje, baba bashobora gusura urubuga rwawe. Ariko IP Address, kubera ko ari imibare myinshi, abantu benshi ntibazibuka. Aho niho uhita uyihuza na rya zina twavuze ugura (domain name) kuko niryo rizorohera abantu kuryibuka, ukaribaha akaba ariryo bakoresha basura urubuga rwawe.

Urugero rwa domain name: techinika.com, igihe.com, visitrwanda.com, minict.gov.rw n’izindi.

Ibice bigize domain name

Nkuko wabibonye ku ngero twatanze, ririya ntabwo ari izina risanzwe. Rifite ibice birenze kimwe. Reka turebe buri gice icyo ari cyo.

Ibice bigize domain name
Ibice bigize domain name

Top Level Domain (TLD): Aka ni agace ka domain name, gashobora kugaragaza amakuru kuri website. Gashobora kukubrira aho website ituruka (.rw ni iyo mu Rwanda, .bi ni iyo mu burundi .uk ni iyo mu bwongereza, .ug ni iyo mu bugande, n’izindi), ikakwereka nyirayo cyangwa icyo yagenewe (.ac yagenewe amashuri, .gov yagenewe ibigo bya leta, .org yagenewe ibigo binini cyangwa imiryango idaharanira inyungu, .com ni ubucuruzi, .net ishobora gusimbura .com, n’ibindi).

Domain name: ni izina riranga ny’iri iyi domain, nk’ubucuruzi bwe, izina ry’umuntu, izina ry’ahantu, n’ibindi. Biterwa n’impamvu y’urubuga, n’icyo nyirarwo yahisemo.

Root domain/Naked domain: Ikubiyemo domain name na TLD. Ibi nibyo twavuze kuva dutangiye tubyita Domain name, ariko uru rugero ruratwereka ko hari ibindi tuba tutavuze.

Sub-Domain: Iki gice cyo ntabwo ari ngombwa cyane ko kijyaho. Iyo umaze kugura domain, ushobora guhitamo ko kijyaho cyangwa ntikigeho. Iyo wagihisemo, umuntu agashakisha muri browser atagishyizeho, gihita gishyirwaho. Uretse n’ibi, birashoboka ko wakora website zirenze imwe zikoresha Root domain imwe, ariko subdomain zitandukanye. Urugero: dufite discourse.techinika.com tukagira tv.techinika.com, whatsapp.techinika.com kandi zose zikujyana ahantu hatandukanye. Sub domain rero ni ingirakamaro.

Protocol: Iki ni igice gifasha browser kumenya aho amakuru araturuka. Hano HTTP ibwira browser ko amakuru umuntu ashaka, araturuka kuri website. Aha hashobora gukoreshwa indi protocol yitwa FTP, yo ikoreshwa mu guhererekanya amakuru hagati y’ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator): Iki gice gikubiyemo ibice byose twavuze, ndetse n’ibindi ushobora kubona inyuma ya TLD. Ibi nibyo abantu benshi bita Link. Uzumva abantu bavuga ngo mpa link, ngo nakoherereje link. Ni ibi baba bavuga.

Bigenda gute iyo umuntu ashakishije iri zina muri browser?

Reka dufate urugero. Iyo ufunguye mudasobwa yawe ushaka kumenya ibigezweho mu ikoranabuhanga, ufungura programu yitwa Browser. Browser ushobora kuba ukoresha Google Chrome, Firefox, Baidu, cyangwa n’indi. Iyo browser yawe ifungutse, wandikamo domain name y’urubuga ushaka gusura, dufate urugeri ko wanditsemo techinika.com; icyo gihe mu buryo wowe utamenya, browser ikoresha icyitwa DNS (Domain Name System), igafata ya domain name wanditsemo, ikayihindura muri IP Address za server ibitse urwo rubuga washakaga.

Bigenda gute iyo ushakishije amakuru kuri murandasi?
Bigenda gute iyo ushakishije amakuru kuri murandasi?

Mudasobwa zo zivugana zikoresheje IP Address. Ntabwo zikoresha domain name. Ubwo ibyo usabye bihita byoherezwa kuri mudasobwa ibitse amakuru, ikareba icyo usabye, yarangiza igahita yohereza ibyo wasabye kuri IP Address yawe. Wowe uri kureba muri browser, ntumenya ibyabaye, wowe ubona icyo wasabye gusa.

Ni iyihe mpamvu yatuma ugura domain name?

Hari impamvu nyinshi zatuma ukoresha domain name ku rubuga rwawe. Zishingiye cyane cyane ku kubaka izina ry’urubuga no kumenyekana, ariko harimo izindi nyungu zirimo ko nawe bikorohera gusura urubuga rwawe.

Kubera iki ukwiye kugura domain name?
Kubera iki ukwiye kugura domain name?
  1. Bifasha abantu kugera ku bikorwa byawe byoroshye. Cyane cyane ku bantu bafite ubucuruzi buri kuri murandasi.
  2. Bitewe na domain name ukoresha, byongera ikizere abantu bakugirira. Urugero, nka domain zifite .com zongera ikizere kurusha izifite .xyz
  3. Zituma abantu bibuka byoroshye. Iyo ufite domain nziza kandi yoroshye kuyibuka, bituma abantu bakwibuka.
  4. Igufasha mu kongera umubare w’abantu bakubona ku mbuga zishakishirizwaho nka Google. Iyo domain name igizwe n’izina abantu bakunze gushakisha, bigufasha kongera umubare w’inshuro uzagaragara mu bisubizo by’abashakisha iryo zina kuri Google cyangwa urundi rubuga rushakishirizwaho.
  5. Bikorohereza guha abantu uburyo bwo kumenya ibyo ukora. Iyo ugiye kubwira abantu uko babona ibyo ukora, biroroha kubaha domain name kurusha uko waba ugiye kubaha IP Address za web server yawe.

Ni gute ugura iri zina?

Iyo umaze gufata umwanzuro wo kugura domain name, uba ugomba kubanza ukamenya iyo ukeneye, noneho ukamenya n’abacuruzi bazicuruza.

Ni izihe nzira unyuramo ngo ugure domain name?
Ni izihe nzira unyuramo ngo ugure domain name?

Intambwe ya 1: Menya izina ukeneye. Yoroshye kuyibuka kandi ihuye n’ibyo ukora, ifite igisobanuro. Aha uhitemo na TLD ushaka gukoresha, .com cyangwa .rw cyangwa indi.

Intambwe ya 2: Jya aho ushaka kugurira domain yawe. Hari ahantu hatandukanye wagurira domain, ariko ibiciro biba bitandukanye. Ushaka kugura izifite Mbere yo kugura, banza ushake amakuru ahagije ku mbuga zitandukanye. Muri izo harimo nka webhosting.co.rw, akadomo.rw, namecheap.com, n’izindi.

Intambwe ya 3: Shakisha domain yawe ahashakishirizwa, urebe ko nta wundi muntu wayifashe. Kuko domain ntishobora gusa n’indi. Zishobora gutandukanya TLD ariko nta domain name 2 zahuza ibintu byose, keretse ari sub-domain.

Intambwe ya 4: Niba ihari, komeza uyishyure noneho irahita iba iyawe. Bitewe n’aho uri kugurira, baguha amahitamo yo kugura mu gihe cy’umwaka umwe cyangwa no hejuru. Ku mwaka ushobora kwitega kwishyira hejuru ya 8000RWF kuri domain name za .rw na 13,000RWF kuri domain name za .com

Ryoherwa no gukoresha domain yawe.

Byagenda gute utaguze domain name yawe?

Ni ingenzi ko abantu bose cyane cyane abacuruzi bateganya ko ubucuruzi bwa bo buzajya kuri murandasi, bagura bakabika amazina aranga ubucuruzi bwa bo kuri website kubera ko bidakozwe, hari ingaruka zikurikira zishobora kukugeraho:

Byagenda gute utaguze domain name yawe
Byagenda gute utaguze domain name yawe
  1. Hari ibyago ko undi muntu abashije kwiyandikishaho izina risa n’iryawe, bishobora gutuma abantu bagutera ikizere bitewe n’icyo uwo muntu arikoresha.
  2. Igihe ukeneye kuryandikisha ugasanga ryarafashwe n’undi muntu, bisaba ko uhindura ugafata irindi rimwe na rimwe utishimiye cyangwa uwo muntu wariguze mbere akaguca amafaranga menshi utagakwiye kuba wishyura.
  3. Uba uri guhomba kugaragara ku isoko rigari kuri murandasi, abakiriya bakagucika.
  4. Abo muhanganye mu bucuruzi, bashobora kurigura, bakarizamukiraho wowe ukabihomberamo.

Nyuma yo gusoma iyi nyandiko, uri umwe mu bantu bafite amakuru kuri domain name ndetse ushobora no kuyisobanurira undi muntu. Ushobora kuzabona domain name zitameze nk’izi dusanzwe tuzi, ukabona ifite nka .onion kuri TLD. Izi domain name zikoreshwa kuri Dark Web, aho bisaba browser y’umwihariko yitwa TOR kugira ngo ubashe gusura website zikoresha .onion (tuzabivugaho mu yindi nyandiko).

Iri ni ikoranabuhanga kandi mu gihe ari ubwa mbere, ntihabura bimwe mu byo ukeneye gusobanukirwa kurushaho. Ntuzuyaze kutubaza, cyangwa niba hari andi makuru ufite, uduhe inyunganizi, ubumenyi bukura busangiwe. Wifuza guhura n’abantu muganira ku ikoranabuhanga, mugahana ibitekerezo, injira muri Group yacu ya WhatsApp. Wifuza gukorana na twe, nyura hano, wuzuze form, noneho dukorane, cyangwa utandikire kuri email info@techinika.com

Ibihe byiza!

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