RFID ni iki? Ese uzi icyo iri koranabuhanga rikora? Nawe urarikoresha buri munsi

Waba warigeze kujya muri Supermarket? Wabonye ukuntu ufata igicuruzwa wahisemo, ukakijyana ku bantu baba bari ku miryango, bagakozaho akamashini ubundi bakakubwira igiciro ndetse n’ingano y’ibyo uguze batiriwe babifungura. Wabonye se uko biba bitondetse neza? Biriya byose babikora bifashishije ikoranabuhanga ryitwa barcode. Gusa uyu munsi ntabwo tugiye kuvuga barcode, ahubwo tugiye kuvuga irindi koranabuhanga rikora nka barcode, ariko ryo ryisumbuyeho kandi rikora n’ibirenze.

Barcode ziba ziri ku bicuruzwa, imashini ikazisoma ikabasha kumenya igicuruzwa icyo ari cyo.

Iryo koranabuhanga, ni iryitwa RFID. RFID mu magambo arambuye bivuze (Radio Frequency Identification). Iri ni ikoranabuhanga ririfashishwa cyane, kandi nibura buri muntu wese muri iyi minsi, afite igikoresho cyiryifashisha. Duhereye kuri aya makarita ya Tap & Go dukoresha mu ngendo, amakariya ya banki dukoresha twishyura, ndetse zimwe muri sim card dukoresha na zo zifashisha RFID. Nkuko twatangiye tubivuga, bimwe mu bicuruzwa na byo, bikurikiranwa hakoreshejwe RFID. Iri koranabuhanga ryagufasha muri byinshi turaza kureba uko dukomeza kurivugaho byinshi.

RFID IKORA GUTE?

RFID Tag: Igizwe na antenna (iyi mirongo izengurutse) ndetse na chip iri hagati.

RFID ni bumwe mu buryo bw’itumanaho nziramigozi (wireless) bukoreshwa hifashishijwe amashanyarazi na rukuruzi ngo birange igikoresho, umuntu cyangwa inyamaswa.

RFID iba igizwe n’ibice bibiri. Igice cya mbere ni agakarita kayo (RFID tag) gashyirwa ku muntu cyangwa ikintu ushaka gukurikirana. Ako gakarita kakaba gafite antenna (ikwirakwiza signal/imirasire) ndetse na chip nto iba iri hagati. Ikindi gikenerwa, ni imashini isoma amakuru ari kuri tag (RFID Reader). Ibi bice byose uko ari bibiri bifatanya kugira ngo RFID ikore neza.

Reka twifashishe urugero. Ikarita yawe ya Tap&Go, ifite tag mo imbere muri yo, ikaba ifite antenna na chip byose mu imbere mu gakarita. Noneho iyo ugiye kwishyura, iriya mashini ukozaho, niyo reader. Antenna igufasha gukwirakwiza imirasire (signals) hagati ya reader na tag.

RFID IKORESHWA HE?

Nkuko twabivuze, RFID ishobora gukoreshwa ahantu henshi cyane. Izi tugiye kuvuga ni zimwe mu ngero z’ahantu wayikoresha ariko ntabwo ari hose:

  1. Ushobora kuyikoresha mu gukurikirana imizigo cyangwa imodoka zawe.
  2. Ushobora kuyikoresha mu bworozi.
  3. Ushobora kuyikoresha mu kugenzura ububiko bwawe.
  4. Ushobora kuyikoresha mu kurinda umutekano (gukora amakarita afungura imiryango)
  5. Ushobora kuyikoresha mu gukora amakarita akoreshwa mu bwishyu
  6. N’ibindi byinshi

UBWOKO BWA RFID

RFID n’ubwo twakomeje kuyivuga nka technology imwe, ariko ifite ubwoko bubiri. Ubwa mbere ni Active RFID, ubundi ni Passive RFID.

  1. Active RFID: Ni RFID tag ariko na yo ubwayo ishobora kubika umuriro. Bivuze ko iba ifite battery (ububiko bw’imbaraga z’amashanyarazi) muri yo. Urugero rw’iyi rwaba tag ushyira nko ku modoka, ugira ngo ijye iguha amakuru runaka. Iyi tag ihora ikora igihe cyose.
  2. Passive RFID: Ni RFID tag idafite battery. Yo ikoresha imbaraga z’umuriro ziturutse muri RFID Reader. Urugero rwiza rwaba amakarita yo kwishyura. Iyo uyikojeje kuri reader, ikoresha umuriro wa reader kugira ngo igire icyo ikora.

RFID NA BARCODE BITANDUKANIYE HE?

Barcodes twatangiye tuvuga ziramenyerewe cyane, ariko RFID ifite ubushobozi bwo kuba yazayisimbura. Ibi tugiye kuvuga, ni bimwe mu bitandukanya RFID na Barcode.

RFIDBARCODE
RFID ntisaba ko reader na tag biba birebana ikora.Barcode isaba ko iba irebana n’imashini iyisoma.
Birashoboka ko hajya intera hagati ya Reader na Tag, kandi RFID igasoma ayo makuru.Bisaba ko Reader iba yegeranye na code cyane kugira ngo isome amakuru.
Uko amakuru ahinduka, niko tag na yo iyahindura (Urugero: Iyo amafaranga avuye ku ikarita, ahita avaho ukabibona)Amakuru ari kuri barcode ntashobora guhinduka habe na gato. Urayasoma gusa.
Hakenerwa amashanyarazi ngo ikoreNta mashanyarazi akenerwa.
RFID ishyirwa mu ga plastic gato, kandi usanga ihenze kurusha barcode.Barcode yo icyo ukora ni ukuyishyira ku gipapuro ukaba wayifatisha ku kintu ushaka kugenzura udasabwe kuyishyiramo imbere.
Itandukaniro riri hagati ya RFID na Barcode.

Ikibazo RFID ifite, ni uko amakuru ariho ahobora gusomwa na buri muntu wese ufite reader bikorana. Kandi bishobora no gukorwa nyirayo atabimenyeshejwe cyangwa atabizi. Ibi byateza ikibazo gikomeye nko mu mutekano w’igihugu cyangwa bikaba byatera ikibazo ku buzima bw’umuntu mu gihe igikoresho wakoreshejeho RFID cyagera mu maboko atari meza.

Kubera ubushobozi buke aya makarita aba afite, ntabwo ahobora kwemera umutekano. RFID ishobora kwemera ko umuntu ayishyiraho umutekano, ni RFID ikoreshwa muri passports z’ingendo ndetse n’izikoreshwa mu ma banki.

Ntitwasoza tutababwiye ko izi karita za RFID ziri kwiyongera cyane mu mikoreshereze kandi zizakoreshwa cyane muri iyi minsi turi kuganamo, kuko ibintu byinshi biri kugenda bikoreshwamo ikoranabuhanga nk’iri ryoroshya ubuzima. Na we ubwawe ushobora gukoresha RFID ugakemura ibibazo uhereye ku byo ufite mu buzima bwawe, mu kwishyura, mu burezi n’ahandi henshi.

Mwakoze cyane gusoma ubu butumwa, dufashe kubugeza ku bantu benshi, kandi niba wifuza ko hari inkuru twazandikaho, hari ikintu ukeneye kumenya, twandikire.

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